Risk factors associated with osteoporosis among women aged 40 years and above attending Orthopedicclinic at Mbagathi hospital, Nairobi County, Kenya
Kieti, Immaculate Nzila
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Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and loss of bone tissue that lead to weak and fragile bones. People with osteoporosis, one of the most disabling conditions of the older persons, have increased risk for fractured bone, particularly in the hip, spine and wrist. It accounts for a third of hospital beds occupied by women over the age of 45. In Kenya the prevalence of osteoporosis stands at 24.3%. The main objective of the study was to determine risk factors associated with osteoporosis among women aged 40 years and above attending orthopedic clinic at Mbagathi level five hospital, Nairobi County. The study adopted a cross sectional analytical study design. The sample size was 154 women suffering from osteoporosis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, socio-economic factors, health factors, physical activity level, dietary intake and nutritional status of the study sample. Data from the structured questionnaire were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 17 computer software except for the dietary intake data from the 24 hour recall which was entered and analyzed using Nutri-Survey computer package. The World Health Organization (WHO) cut off points were used to interpret the nutritional status of respondents. Chi-square (.t) was used to establish the associations between categorical data on osteoporosis and Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, demographic and social economic factors. Pearson Correlation (r) was done to establish the association between continuous data. Data were generated into means, frequencies and percentages and grouped into tables, charts and graphs. A p value of (p<0.05) was considered significant. The study established that age and dietary intake were the major risk factors of osteoporosis. The diets of the respondents mainly consisted of plant foods and less intake of animal proteins. The respondents were not able to meet the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of the major key nutrients important for bone health which include calcium, (RDA mean intake 29.1%) and vitamin D which was consumed in statistically unmeasurable amounts. Majority of the respondents (53%) had normal nutritional status (BMI of 19 to 24.9 kg/m"). The incidence of fractures occurred most in age group 50-59 years while the physical activity level and intensity among the respondents decreased with advancement in age. One way ANOVA showed a significant difference between age and income levels "of the respondents (p<0.05, a = 0.05). There was a significant association between age and those who had osteoporotic fractures (t=9.885, p=0.042). Unlike in other studies which have showed that women suffering from osteoporosis take micronutrient supplements especially calcium and vitamin D, majority of the respondents were not taking micronutrient supplements. Since majority of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics correlated positively with osteoporosis there is need of nutrition education on controllable risk factors of osteoporosis.