Influence of the head teachers' instructional Supervisory practices on teachers' work performance A Case of public secondary schools in Arusha Municipality, Tanzania
Simbano, Ally Dhinat
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Worldwide educational strategies and platforms have conveyed out importance confronts to several education policies around the world based on sustainability and endurance. It is evident that supervision of school and classroom instruction is ignored among head teachers .although stressed by the Ministry of Education and vocational training (MOEVT) in Tanzania. Even though some research has been conducted on the issue concerning these challenges, none of these researchers has investigated the relationship between headteachers' supervisory practices on teachers' performance. There was, therefore, a need for this study to be undertaken. The purpose of the study was to determine the- influence of heads of schools supervisory' practices on teachers' work performance. The specific objectives of the study were: to determine the attitude of teachers towards instructional supervision; to determine the influence of instructional supervision on teachers' performance; to establish the challenges faced by head teachers in instructional supervision; and to identify supervisory approaches used by headteachers to improve teachers' performance. This study used descriptive design to study the influence of headsteachers supervisory practices on teacher's work performance in Arusha municipal. The research used this design because the study aimed to determine the relationship between variables that are heads of the schools supervisory practices and teacher's work performance. Also the researcher used descriptive design because it was a method used to investigate educational issues to determine and report the way things are. Target population of the study comprised all 25 head of schools and 822 teachers in public secondary schools in Arusha municipalilty. The researcher obtained a sample of 15 public secondary schools out of the 25 for the purpose of study through simple random sampling by using the folding paper technique. The sampled schools represent 60% of the total number of schools in Arusha municipal. Sample size comprised 15 head teachers and 135 teachers from the 15 sample schools. The study used questionnaires as research instrument for both headteachers and teachers. Piloting was done using test-retest method after writing the questionnaire and before starting the actual data collection and contrast of the answers given in the two sets of questionnaires was made and examined by Crobach "Alpha. From the pilot study, a value of 0.67 was obtained hence the instruments were accepted. The collected data from the questionnaires were edited and coded for the purpose of data analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages, with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data were organized into themes and discussed based on the related study objectives. The analyzed data were presented using frequency tables a. The study findings revealed that majority of teachers had negative attitudes towards supervision. Findings indicated that majority of head teachers strongly agreed that supervision benefits teachers on improving their teaching within the classroom and reduces lesson absence by teachers. The major challenges facing head teachers in supervisory practices were overload work by teachers and lack of certain teaching/learning materials averts effective instructional supervision process. The study concluded that to some degree instructional supervision impact teacher performance in secondary schools. The study recommends the Ministry of Education vocational training to reinforce, seminars and workshops countrywide for secondary school head teachers and assistant headteachers.