Determinants of Sexual Violence Among Young People in Naivasha District, Nakuru County, Kenya
Sexual violence is a serious public health, social and human rights problem affecting millions of people each year throughout the world. It affects both sexes but women and girls are the most affected. This study sought to determine prevalence and pattern of sexual violence, determinants of sexual violence and assess the knowledge level of young people on sexual violence in Naivasha District. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data. Two hundred and fifty five young people were interviewed, Focused Group Discussions conducted and observations done. Semi-structured questionnaire guide was used to collect quantitative data while FGD guide and KII guide were used to collect qualitative data. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17, summarized using tables, pie charts and bar graphs. Chi-square and Fischer’s Exact Test were used to measure association between independent and dependent variables with P=0.05 being considered significant. On the other hand, binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent determinants of sexual violence (95% CI). On overall, prevalence of sexual violence among young people was 36.9%. Results showed that 50% of the survivors were age <15 years. More females (72.3%) than males (27.7%) experienced sexual violence. The majority (55.3%) of the respondents reported that the perpetrators were acquaintances, 12.8% boyfriends and cousins, 7.4% uncle, strangers (6.3%) and husbands (5.3%). Most (66.3%) cases of sexual violence were reported in the evening especially over the weekends followed by those which occurred at night and daytime over the weekends (65%). About 43.6% of sexual violence occurred over holidays or in festive seasons with 33% of them occurring under the influence of alcohol. The study found the determinants of sexual violence to be age (P=0.022), gender (P = 0.001), marital status (P=0.047), education level (P=0.028), work status (P=0.023), income level (P=0.023), number of sexual partner one partner (P=0.001), age at first sexual intercourse (P=0.022), alcohol consumption (P=0.001), divorce (p=0.021), weak laws (p=0.001), conflict with parents (P=0.004), pornography (P=0.034), prostitution (P=0.043), insecurity (P=0.001) and knowledge level (P = 0.006). Independent predictors included age 10-14 years (OR=0.418; CI, 0.219–0.796) and age15–19 years (OR=0.700; 95CI, 0.351–1.398), gender (OR = 2.520; CI, 1.457 - 4.356), Marital status (OR=1.799; CI, 1.003–3.226), low education levels as primary (OR= 2.036; CI, 1.047–3.959) and secondary (OR= 1.022; CI, 0.489–3.226),unemployed (OR = 0.550; CI, 0.327–0.925), low income (OR =1.820; CI, 1.081-3.062), Multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.274; CI, 0.134 - 0.559), divorce (OR = 0.542; CI, 0.321 - 0.914), conflicted with parents (OR = 0.469; CI, 0.279-0.789), pornography (OR = 0.576; CI, 0.345-0.962), prostitution (OR = 0.586; 9CI, 0.348-.985), insecurity (OR = 0.409; 955 CI, 0.235-0.714) and low knowledge level (OR = 3.646; CI, 1.612-8.248) and average knowledge level (OR = 1.667; CI, 0.867-3.204). On overall, 56.1% of the respondents had average level knowledge, 24.6% low knowledge level and 19.2% high knowledge level on sexual violence.