Isolation, identification and antiimcrobial testing of salmonella typhi from water and food1sample,s in,Mwea region, . Kirinyaga county, Kenya
Maina, Lukas Mwaura
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Typhoid fever is a systemic illness caused by the gram-negative bacillus Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (s. typhi). Mwea region is often prone to enteric fever outbreaks. This may be due to its low lying nature and the seasonal fluctuation in the water level making the region vulnerable to flooding which leads to contamination of food and portable water. The study aims at investigating the major factors contributing to the recurrent attacks by typhoid fever among people of Mwea region Kirinyaga County. It will also investigate the bacterial load of the water and food samples and the resistance pattern of Salmonella typhi isolates determined through antimicrobial sensitivity testing by disc diffusion technique. Moreover, the study will help in determination of Salmonella serotypes. Already used water, intestinal wastes obtained from butcheries, milk, swabs of fruits, vegetables and water from various water sources will be collected. The samples will be inoculated into a non - selective pre enrichment media the buffered peptone water and then incubated at 37 0 C for 24 h. One milliliter of the pre enriched broth will be transferred into cubes containing ten milliliter Selenite F broth and further incubated at 370 C for 24 h. Pure isolates will then be inoculated in two selective media namely XLD (xylose lysine deoxycholate) agar and then Salmonella - Shigella agar. Identification and characterization will be based on colonial morphology and cultural characteristics. The pure culture obtained will be used for biochemical confirmation. Biochemical characterization by use of analytical profile index (API-E20) will be done. Serotyping will be done by slide agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test will be performed using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results of the sample will be compared against standards set by WHO. Analysis of variance (One way Anova) at 5% confidence level will be used to compare the means of the results of sample analysis. Recording and processing of data will be done using the statistical package for social science (SPSS). All numeric analysis for the total plate count will be made using arcsine logarithm bacterial count values in Excel spreadsheets. The confidence intervals for antimicrobial resistance will be estimated using Win Episcope (version 2.0) and Epicalc 2000 (version 1.02) software.