Prevalence of parasitic infections in small ruminants in a pastoral community in Narok district, Kenya Prevalence des infections parasitaires chez les petits ruminants dans une communaute pastorale du district de Narok au Kenya
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A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages (Emorijoi and Ngoswani) in Lemek group ranch and one village (Enkoje) situated in Koyaki group ranch in Narok District to investigate parasitic infections in small ruminants. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 150 sheep and an equal number of goats during wet season (May-June) and dry season (August-September) and analyzed using different parasitological methods. The findings showed that parasites infecting small ruminants in the area were helminthes, Cowdria ruminantium, ticks and trypanosomes. The most prevalent genera of nematodes identified were Strongyles, which usually occurred concurrently in most animals. The percentage of animals with at least one or more helminth eggs detected during the wet season in sheep and goats was 36% (54) and 52% (78) respectively before deworming with Nilzan plus (1.5% levamisole plus refoxanide hydrochloride). Approximately two months after deworming the animals, this percentage of animals declined to 18% (27) and 24.6% (37) in sheep and goats respectively during the dry season. During the wet season the overall trypanosome prevalence in sheep and goats was 1.3% (2) and 4.6% (7) respectively and decreased significantly to 0% (0, goats) (P<0.05) and increased to 2% (3, sheep) during the dry season but this increase was not significant (P<0.05). The overall prevalence of heartwater was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep (69%, 101) than in goats (47%, 70) during the wet season. Similar findings were observed for the tick numbers. The tsetse challenge recorded during the study period ranged from (0-31.1 fly per trap per day (FTD). In conclusion this study recommends strategic deworming 3-4 weeks into the rains and a good tick control programm of spraying the animals at least once every two weeks and individual treatments for trypanasomosis.